Henri thrown on the buttock by Francois ... what shame !!!
" It was easier to the brave and courageous King of England to send his defenseless spouses Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howardtowards the axe of the executioner than to overcome in the regular way King of France !!! "
Henry VIII is one of the most famous kings in English history. He was the second Tudor monarch and was well-known for having six wives. His break with the papacy in Rome established the Church of England and began the Reformation.
Image: Henry VIII (1491–1547) by Hans Holbein the younger (Getty Images)
More information about: Henry VIII
Henry, the second son of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, was born on 28 June 1491 at Greenwich Palace. After the death of his elder brother Arthur in 1502, Henry became heir to the English throne.
King of England
When Henry VII died in 1509, this popular eighteen-year-old prince, known for his love of hunting and dancing, became King Henry VIII. Soon after he obtained the papal dispensation required to allow him to marry his brother's widow, Catherine of Aragon.
In the first years of his reign Henry VIII effectively relied on Thomas Wolsey to rule for him, and by 1515 Henry had elevated him to the highest role in government: Lord Chancellor.
In 1521 Pope Leo X conferred the title of Defender of the Faith on Henry for his book 'Assertio Septem Sacramentorum', which affirmed the supremacy of the Pope in the face of the reforming ideals of the German theologian, Martin Luther.
Henry VIII's early military campaigns began when he joined Pope Julius II's Holy League against France in 1511. Wolsey proved himself to be an outstanding minister in his organisation of the first French campaign and while the Scots saw this war as an opportunity to invade England, they were defeated at Flodden in 1513. However war with France ultimately proved expensive and unsuccessful.
Henry VIII is known as the 'father of the Royal Navy.' When he became king there were five royal warships. By his death he had built up a navy of around 50 ships. He refitted several vessels with the latest guns including the Mary Rose, which sank in 1545.
Henry also built the first naval dock in Britain at Portsmouth and in 1546 he established the Navy Board. This set up the administrative machinery for the control of the fleet.
A male heir
Henry was acutely aware of the importance of securing a male heir during his reign. He was worried that he had only one surviving child, Mary, to show for his marriage to Catherine, who was now in her 40s. So the king asked Cardinal Wolsey to appeal to Pope Clement VII for an annulment and it soon became clear he wanted to marry Anne Boleyn, who had been a lady-in-waiting to his first wife.
But, unwilling to anger Catherine of Aragon's nephew – the most powerful ruler in Europe, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V – the Pope refused. Thomas Wolsey's ascendancy was cut short by this failure.
In 1533, Henry VIII broke with the church and married the now pregnant Anne Boleyn in a secret ceremony. Henry was excommunicated by the Pope. The English reformation had begun.
Head of the Church
After Wolsey's downfall, Thomas Cromwell became Henry's chief minister and earned the confidence of the King by helping him to break with Rome and establish Henry VIII as head of the Church of England. This act also brought him much needed wealth through the dissolution of the well-funded monasteries. Over four years Cromwell ordered that 800 monasteries be disbanded and their lands and treasures taken for the crown.
The cultural and social impact was significant, as much of the land was sold to the gentry and churches and monasteries were gutted and destroyed. Henry's personal religious beliefs remained Catholic, despite the growing number of people at court and in the nation who had adopted Protestantism.
In September 1533 Anne gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth (the future Queen Elizabeth I). Henry had grown tired of her, and after two further pregnancies ended in miscarriages, she was arrested in 1536 on trumped up charges of adultery and publicly beheaded at the Tower of London.
Henry's third marriage, this time to lady-in-waiting, Jane Seymour, finally produced the son he so desperately desired with the birth of Edward in 1537. Jane Seymour died after childbirth and Henry ordered that she be granted a queen's funeral.
In an attempt to establish ties with the German Protestant alliance, Thomas Cromwell arranged a marriage between the king and German princess Anne of Cleves. The marriage was a disaster and Henry divorced Anne a few months later. Henry blamed Cromwell for this mismatch and soon afterwards had him executed for treason.
The final years of his reign witnessed Henry VIII's physical decline and an increasing desire to appear all-powerful. Henry continued with fruitless and expensive campaigns against Scotland and France.
In 1540, the aging King married the teenage Catherine Howard. Their marriage was short lived. It was alleged that she had a previous relationship with Henry's courtier Francis Dereham and an affair with another courtier Thomas Culpeper. Catherine was executed for adultery and treason in 1542.
Henry's final marriage to Catherine Parr, who acted like a nurse, was more harmonious and she would go on to outlive him.
Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547 and was succeeded by his son, Edward VI. He was buried next to Jane Seymour in St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle.
En 1501 Arthur l'héritier de la couronne d'Angleterre épouse Katherine d'Aragon infante d'Espagne
In 1501 Arthur marries Katherine d'Aragon daughter of king of Spain .
C'elle - ci en plus d'étre belle et intelligente est pourvue d'une dot fort importante . Mais le prince héritier a une mauvaise constitution et meurt quelques mois aprés l'union . En 1502 Henri devient l'héritier du trône d'Angleterre et un parti trés convoité , grand , athlétique , il a la réputation d'étre " le plus beau prince de l'Europe "
Besides to be beautiful and intelligent she is provided with a very important dowry . But the crown prince has a bad constitution and dies a few months after the union . In 1502 Henri becomes the heir of the throne of England and of this fact a very desired party ; tall , athletic , he has the reputation to be the " most beautiful prince of Europe " .
Marié à sa belle soeur
Married to his sister in law
La veuve reste un parti intéressant . Le roi d'Angleterre n'entend pas rendre Katherine à son père et encore moins sa dot . Il propose donc de donner la jeune veuve à Henri . Pour que le mariage soit possible il faut vérifier que la première union n'a pas été consommée , sauf dispense papale . Ni une ni deux , le pontife Jules II accorde la dispense de constatation de virginité .
A 19 ans , Henri trés amoureux , épouse Catherine de six ans son ainée , la première de ses six femmes .
The widow remains an interesting party . King of England does not intend to return Katherine to his father and even less her dowry . He thus suggests giving the young widow to Henri . So that the marriage is possible it is necessary to verify the first union was not consumed , except papal exemption . Neither one nor two , the pontiff Jules II grants the exemption of observation of virginity .
At the age of 19 , very loving Henri , marries Katherine of six years his elder , the first one of his six spouses .
Pour voir la vie de chacune des six épouses d'Henri VIII cliquez sur leur nom en haut de la page à gauche
To see life of each spouse of Henri VIII click on her name at the top of the page on the left
Prince Henri at the bedside of his father King
Young Prince Henri
First historical wrestling competition
England versus France
Camp du Drap d'Or
The field of the clothe of gold
1 Henry VIII
This text comes from my textbook for Hodder and Stoughton (2000), written for less-able readers. It summarises the reign in a few lines.
Henry VIII Henry became king in 1509. He wanted to be a great and memorable king.
He built 50 warships – in 1512 the biggest warship, called the Great Harry, was built. In 1513, the English army crushed the Scots army at Flodden. Also in 1513, Henry went to fight in France, but he could not defeat the French army.
In 1520, Henry met the King of France. Henry wanted to look good. He took 4,000 people with him. They ate from plates of gold! The meeting place was called 'The Field of the Cloth of Gold'.
In 1533, Henry said that HE was the Head of the Church in England. And in 1536, he used his new power to close the monasteries down, and took their land and money.
But Henry 'dipped his hand in blood'. In 1536, he hanged hundreds of people who protested about the monasteries. In 1536, his second wife, Anne Boleyn, had her head chopped off because she could not have a son, and in 1542 he executed his fifth wife, Catherine Howard, when she slept with other men.
Henry VIII became the richest king in the world and he made England very powerful. In 1536 Wales became part of England. And in 1541 Henry made himself King of Ireland.
People did as the king said – because they were afraid of him, or because they loved him. In 1537, Jane Seymour, Henry's third wife, gave him a son. And when Henry died in 1547, NO ONE rebelled when the new king Edward VI came to the throne, even though he was only a nine-year-old boy.
'A wonderful man,' wrote the French ambassador.
Du 7 au 24 Juin 1520 prés de Calais entre Andres et Guines se tint la rencontre entre François I et Henri VIII
Duuring eveningHenri teased the french king and suggested him making a wrestling match . François who was very physically and had learnt the breton wrestling accepted with a smile and did not have pain to senf Henri to the ground ...
Art: The Field of Cloth of Gold
I've had this spectacular event in my head lately, probably due to watching and reviewing Episode Two of 'The Tudors,' as well as it coming into last week's poll. I mentioned in that post that I love the painting, Field of Cloth of Gold and have decided to "art" it for you today.
Henry VIII arriving.
A nobleman eating, while another courtier has already had a bit too much wine.
A joust, showing each King with their respective Queen.
A wrestling match, probably representing the one between Henry VIII and Francois I.
Henri thrown on the bottom by François ... what shame !!!
An historian will say later : " It was easier to brave king of England to send his defenseless spouses towards the ax of the executioner than to overcome in the regular way king of France " ...
Obama meets PM. Sarkozy meets PM. Medvedev meets PM. Wen meets PM. Cameron already met PM. That makes all five heads of permanent Security Council states guests of India within a year. Good thing we did some housecleaning for the Commonwealth Games.
Historically, this is very unusual. Before modern times, rulers rarely ever met except in victory and defeat. Humayun met the Shah of Persia, but only after Sher Shah Suri had snatched his kingdom. Alexander met Porus, rajas and sultans regularly met their usurpers, the British King-Emperor received his subject Indian princes…
A ruler did not leave his realm except to enlarge it, or when he had no choice. Poor John VIII Palaiologos, the 15th-century Byzantine emperor who ruled over not much more than his capital city — he had to tour the European courts to beg for military aid against the Turks. None came, but on the other hand his visit did expose the Europeans to Greek culture and learning (and books), and therefore he helped trigger the Renaissance.
Nothing as enlightened will ensue from this sequence of imperial visits to Delhi. But they are still governed by an ancient, semi-martial script. As in the old days, where the master goes the imperial household and bodyguards follow.
Here comes Barack Obama, in effect to enlarge his realm. He brings with him 1,600 staff.* His people will take over the Taj Mahal Hotel in Mumbai, and the Taj Palace Hotel in Delhi. The Maurya’s “Grand Presidential Floor”, where Obama will pitch his camp, according to the glossy PR brochure “instills awe and imparts a sense of divine kingship”.
What is all this but a 2010 version of the imperial Mughal tent city, the one that housed the padshah and his court whenever he travelled outside the cities?
Or, for a nearer parallel, the meeting of Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France in 1520, at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. Henry still held Calais on the French side of the Channel, so he and Francis shared a land border.
The Field was a shallow valley between the last English town (Guisnes) and the last French town (Ardres). The whole area was prepared and decorated at stupendous expense, down to landscaping so that each king’s pavilion would be at an equal elevation. The local housing stock would not accommodate the armies of nobles, soldiers, officials, servants and camp followers. So the plain was dotted with thousands of tents, some very grand indeed — so grand that all that expensive “cloth of gold” gave the place its name.
For Henry a temporary palace was erected. Here is how the contemporary Englishman, and possibly eyewitness, Edward Hall describes it in his entertaining and detailed Chronicle. It was, Hall writes, “the most noble and royall lodgyng before seen, for it was a palays”. The palace was actually an immense square tent, 328 feet on each side and over 30 feet tall. The canvas sides were painted to resemble stone, the canvas roof to mimic slate.
Inside, Hall recounts scrupulously, were “all houses of offices that to such an honourable court should apperteigne, that is to wete, the lorde Chamberlain, lorde Steward, lorde Thresourer of the household, for the comptroller and office of grene cloth, wardroppes, juell house, and office of houshold service, as ewery, pantrie, seller [cellar], buttery, spicery, pitcher house, larder, and poultrie, and all other offices so large and faire that the officers might and did marueieles [marvel]…”
Not much has changed! The Grand Presidential Floor has its own security control room, microbiological food testing lab, round-the-clock room service — more or less everything a modern court needs.
Hall’s Chronicle tells the reader a lot of things. Among the facts, he lists precisely who was entitled to attend what event, what the exact order of precedence was, how the events were set up and what they cost.
Two things Hall does not say. One, anything about the delightful story that Francis bested Henry in a quick bout of wrestling. Two, that the summit had no lasting effect. The friendliness evaporated very quickly, and two years later England and France were at war — again.
Moral of the story: from imperial summitry, expect only modest progress.
*Various figures have been reported. This is not the highest.
" Nonsuch Palace " Story
Commencée le 22 Avril 1538 la plus grande construction du régne d'Henri VIII dura neuf ans et fut réalisée à un prix d'au moins 240000 Livres une somme phénoménale pour l'époque .
Le palace fut bâti dans le Surrey sur l'emplacement du village de Cuddington ( à côté d'Epsom ) que le roi fit détruire aprés avoir expulsé les habitants qui reçurent une compensation en or .
Le roi choisit pour le démarrage des travaux le jour anniversaire de ses trnte ans de règne et des six mois de son fils le futur Edouard VI .
En l'espace de deux mois le nom de " Sans-Pareil " ( Nonsuch en anglais ) apparait dans les comptes des fournisseurs un nom qui témoigne de l'ambition du projet qu'il était déjà perçu à l'époque . Le palais , suivant le modèle du château de Chambord de François Premier devait célébrer la puissance et la magnificence de la maison Tudor .
Contrairement à la plupart des palais d'Henri VIII le " Sans - Pareil " n'est pas la réhabilitation d'un édifice anterieur ; le souverain décida d'établir un palais ex nihilo en ce lieu car il était voisin de son plus grand terrain de chasse .
1538 Richard and Elizabeth Codington sold the manor of Cuddington to Henry VIII, who started building Nonsuch Palace. Henry VIII wiped away the old village of Cuddington including the old manor/mansion house and the church when he started work on Nonsuch Palace and created two parks - The Great Park and The Little Park. The Great Park was to the west of modern day London Road and covered about 911 acres - much of what is today Stoneleigh and Worcester Park. The Little Park was about 671 acres and was to the east of modern day London Road, covering what is today the land between Ewell and Cheam (including of course, modern day Nonsuch Park). The total area of the palace grounds was not just limited to the manor of Cuddington as Henry acquired about 150 acres each from the Manors of Ewell and from Malden.
Outline map showing the Great and Little Parks
The original idea behind the Palace was for a hunting lodge attached to Hampton Court Palace. The King would then have hunting grounds stretching from Hampton Court to Walton on the Hill. But soon Henry decided to build a palace to impress foreign kings, particularly the French King François I, with his wealth and power.
The Palace was built on the site of the original parish church and excavations in 1959 suggest that this church would initially have been just a plain hall (technically an undivided nave and chancel) dating back to the 1100s. The 1100s church was extended and by the time Henry acquired the manor it had some form of tower on its western face.
Close to the old church was the old manor house which together with a barn (approx. 155ft by 36ft), some stables and a wall, complete with gatehouse, formed an enclosed courtyard. The property was small and this is reflected in the size of the manor house. The main room, the hall, was only 24ft by 18 ft; the house had several bedrooms, three living rooms, 7 servant's rooms, and a kitchen. Of course there would have been a dovecote and kitchen gardens with orchard. Close to the old manor house were four separate farms complete with farmhouses, barns and stables.
Detail from the 1933 OS Map - click to enlarge. The approximate location of the Palace and the location of the smaller Banqueting House are marked in red.
Work started on the Palace on Henry's 30th birthday 22 April 1538, when an army of workmen started razing (totally clearing) the site. Building the palace took about 9 years, employed an estimated 500 workmen and after just 7 years had cost £24,536 (about £10.3m at 2008 prices based on RPI). This was much more than Hampton Court Palace which cost approx £16,000 and was about 3 times the size of Nonsuch! Back in 1538 a carpenter would only be paid about 6d a day (say £123.23 a day at 2008 prices. based on average earnings). To save costs Henry recycled stone taken from Merton Priory which had been surrendered to the Crown on 29th April 1538 as part of the dissolution of the monasteries, and work on dismantling the priory started within a week and soon 3,600 tons of stone were carted away.
It's not certain that all this stone went to Nonsuch but the palace needed a further 96 loads of stone from Reigate, and 364 loads of Liege and Caen stone were carried from Ditton. The palace also used some 259,000 tiles from Kingston and Streatham. Brick and lime kilns were built on site using 5 loads of bricks from Hampton Court. The lime kilns alone consumed 89 loads of lime. Many building supplies arrived from London via the Thames at Kingston including 250,000 nails supplied by just one ironmonger. Surrey and the southeast was scoured for the 1000 loads of timber which included 15,000ft of floor boards.
Crude outline of Nonsuch Palace (not to scale)
The palace was relatively small (only 330ft x 165ft) and shaped a bit like a square figure eight 8 as it consisted of two quadrangles sharing a common side. The main gatehouse was on the North Front and had brick and stone turrets built in the traditional Tudor style. This opened onto the outer courtyard. After crossing the courtyard and passing through the opposite wing you entered the inner courtyard. This was paved with stone and the ground floor walls were also made of stone but the upper floors were mainly stucco reliefs on timber frames. The reliefs, all near life size, were in three tiers - Roman emperors at the top; gods and goddesses in the middle and various scenes at the bottom - the Labours of Hercules on the west side, the Liberal Arts and Virtues on the east side, and Henry VIII together with Prince Edward forming the centre piece of the south side of the inner courtyard. The timber framing was clad with carved slate covered in gold leaf to set off the white reliefs. The South Front had a smaller gatehouse complete with clock, and towers at each end topped by onion-shaped cupolas and weather vanes; this is the face most frequently seen in pictures and drawings. Like the inner courtyard, the exterior of the South Front was covered with stucco reliefs made by William Kendall and his 24 workmen. The king's apartments were on the west of the inner courtyard with the queen's apartments on the east, and a gallery in the south wing. The gardens were formal with several statues and may have included representations of Ovid's Metamorphoses. It was the first major Renaissance building in England.
Many of the Palace workmen were Italian, including Nicolas Bellin of Modena. Bellin had worked at Fontainebleau and is thought to have been responsible for the elaborately carved gilded slates surrounding the stucco reliefs of the Inner Court and on the South Front. It has been suggested that the reason for using Italian workmen was partly to annoy the French King, who was still building Fontainebleau using the skilled craftsmen from Italy. Bellin was accused of defrauding the French King who asked for his repatriation back to France. Henry refused to do this as Bellin was Italian and not French so this must have been a particularly irritating to the French King!
Contemporary reports suggest that Nonsuch was a stunning building so it is no wonder that it very soon acquired the reputation of being one without equal in Europe (i.e. there was no such palace ever built before).
A woodcut of Nonsuch Palace
Henry VIII died in 1547 before the external decorations of the palace were completed and the Sheriff of Surrey, Sir Thomas Cawarden, was granted a 21-year lease by Edward VI on a dwelling and some land in the manor of Cuddington (sometimes now called Nonsuch) in 1547 at a rent of £5.5s.8d or about £1,800 at 2008 prices (based on RPI). Three years later he became Keeper of the King's House of Nonsuch, though this may have referred to the separate banqueting hall (Banketyng House) with its guest rooms. The banqueting hall was located some 300 yards to the south west of the palace.
Detail from a drawing by Joris Hoefnagel 1538
In 1556 Cawarden's lease ended unexpectedly (possibly confiscated, as in that year he was arrested for conspiracy) and the King's House together with the mansion of Nonsuch and associated land (in Nonsuch, Ewell, Cuddington, and Cheam, and the Little Park of Nonsuch) was granted to Henry Fitzalan, twelfth Earl of Arundel (and Lord Chamberlain to Henry VIII) by Queen Mary I in exchange for some cash and some estates in Suffolk.
The Earl is said to have completed the Palace and in 1559 entertained Queen Elizabeth there. It was reported that
'her grace had as gret chere every nyght and bankets; but ye sonday at nyght my lord of Arundell made her a grete bankett at ys coste as ever was sene, for soper, bankete, and maske, wt drums and flutes, and all ye mysyke yt cold be, tyll mydnyght; and as for chere, has not bene sene nor heard. On Monday was a great supper made for her, but before night she stood at her standing in the further park, and there she saw a course. At nyght was a play of the Chylderyn of Powlles and theyr mysyke master Sebastian Phelyps and Mr. Haywode; and after, a grete banket, wt drumes and flutes and the goodly bankets and dishes as costely as ever was sene, and gyldyd. . . . My Lord of Arundell gayfe to ye Quene grace a cubard of plate.'
The Earl died in 1580 leaving the bulk of his property to his son-in-law Lord Lumley. Lumley built up a splendid library and created the first Italianate garden in England. Queen Elizabeth made further visits to Nonsuch and obviously liked the area as in 1590-2 she purchased the palace and the Little Park in exchange for lands to the value of £534 (say £96,500 at 2008 prices, based on RPI). In 1599 it was said that
'Her Majestie is returned again to None-such, which of all other places she likes best'; and it was on the occasion of this visit that the Earl of Essex, having returned from Ireland without the queen's permission, burst into her bedchamber at ten o'clock in the morning, and though received kindly at the time, was committed four days later to the custody of the Lord Keeper.'
James I, who frequently used the Palace for hunting and racing, appointed Lord Lumley Keeper of the Palace and Little Park. (So the Earl inherited the Manor, then sold it to the crown in the early 1590s only to be appointed about 10 years later to run the manor) Lumley died in 1609, and was succeeded by his nephew, Splandian Lloyd. Meanwhile in December 1606 the Earl of Worcester was appointed Keeper of the Great Park at Nonsuch. There was a lodge in the Great Park which became known as Worcester House and the Great Park gradually became known as Worcester Park.
The manor of Cuddington (excluding Nonsuch Palace and the two parks) stayed in the Lloyd family till 1704 when it passed to Robert Lumley Lloyd, rector of St. Paul's, Covent Garden and the chaplain to the Duke of Bedford. On his death the chaplain bequeathed the manor, and other parcels of land in Surrey, to the Duke. In 1755 the manor was sold by the Duke to Edward Northey of Epsom who also that year bought the manor of Ewell.
Nonsuch from the North West (Unknown Flemish artist)
James I settled Nonsuch Palace and the two parks on his Queen Henrietta Maria in 1625. Charles I is known to have made 4 visits to Nonsuch (1625, 1629, 1630, and 1632).
During the Civil War the palace and its estate was confiscated, along with other royal palaces, by Parliamentary Commissioners. Initially it was leased by the Government to Algernon Sidney (at £150pa.) but the Government later decided to use it as a bond against the unpaid wages of Colonel Robert Lilburne's regiment. Lilburne offered Nonsuch Palace and The Little Park to Major-General Lambert who apparently bought it at a discounted price (Lilburne's men would have had to accept just 60% of their unpaid wages). The Great Park and Worcester House were purchased in 1654-6 by Colonel Thomas Pride, who died in 1658 at Worcester House.
At the Restoration Nonsuch Palace and the two parks were restored to Queen Henrietta Maria and at her death Nonsuch Great Park (or Worcester Park) and Worcester House was leased by Charles II to Sir Robert Long for 99 years. One of the conditions of the lease was that Sir Robert should from time to time convert part of the premises into pasture without destroying the trees and bushes, so that the same might become fit for deer in case the king were minded to restore and make the same park a park as formerly.
During the plague of 1665 Nonsuch Palace was taken over as offices for the Exchequer (see also Samuel Pepys's diary entries 26/71663, 29/9/1665, 20/11/1665, and 28/11/1665) and in 1670 Sir Robert Long complained that Roundheads and the Exchequer staff had used many of the trees for fuel and timber and generally neglected the estate leaving it in a badly dilapidated state.
Sir Robert Long died in 1673 leaving the lease to his nephew, but despite this Charles II gave the estate to his mistress Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland who became Baroness of Nonsuch. Barbara dismantled the palace and quickly sold it and its contents to repay some of her gambling debts. (It is said that she lost £20,000, worth about £2.6m at 2008 prices (based on RPI), together with some jewellery in just one nights gambling) She also divided much of the parks into farms.
This page was researched and written by Peter Reed in 2009
La reine Elisabeth fille d'Henri VIII et d'Anne Boylen est accueillie au Palais ...
Scenic view featuring a banquet for Elizabeth 1st
Nonsuch Palace Model
Working tirelessly through the few illustrations and the extensive descriptions, coupled with knowledge gained from the excavation, it has been possible to create an image of the Palace that is unforgettable. The inner, or royal, courtyard was of a construction never attempted before, nor repeated since. It was a gigantic work of art. To see even this small representation of the building is to realize why Hoefnagel regarded it as one of the wonders of the world (the reason he painted his famous watercolour). Actually creating this model has, of course, called on the outstanding expertise of our dedicated model-maker. The Friends’ selection of Ben Ruthven-Taggart has itself proved sensationally successful. His knowledge and ability to so adequately overcome the problems involved in miniaturisation has been tested to the utmost — and not found wanting!
Photo Credit - Roger Poynter
The Model is constructed in a variety of materials. The main structure is built in wood with architectural details added in various plastics, fibre-glass resin and brass. The most fascinating feature of the palace was its fantastically designed stucco plaster panels decorating the walls of the inner court and the exterior of the building. There are 695 stucco panels in all. For the purposes of building the model it was not practical to carve each panel individually. Instead a total of 149 panels were made depicting gods and goddesses, battling soldiers in classical attire, the busts of Caesars and many other compositions of figures. These master panels were carved and then cast in silicon rubber moulds and reproduced in plastic resin. The resin casts were arranged very carefully on the model so that no duplicate panels were near to one another. This gives the impression of each panel being unique.
Between the stucco panels, there were on the original building borders of slate roughly 6" wide, carved with a gilloche pattern and decorated with gold paint. These were represented on the model using thin brass sheets which had been acid etched with the design of the gilloche pattern. The brass was sprayed with black paint and then gently sanded with emery paper so that the brass is visible in the etched pattern. This replicates the detail of the gold paint exactly. The great day for the Friends of Nonsuch came on September 6th when Professor Martin Biddle unveiled the model of Nonsuch Palace. The model clearly shows, as no other medium can, that the ‘royal’ part of the palace was in reality as much a gigantic work of art as it was a building. The result is a triumph for the model builder, Ben Taggart, and a fascinating interpretation of Professor Biddle’s fifty-two years of research and a significant achievement of the Friends of Nonsuch. "We are now in the possession of a work of national importance and are taking on a duty to show it to as many people as possible." .
Borne délimitant le site du " Palais sans pareil "
Bollard marking the site of " Nonsuch Palace "
6 September 2011 Model of lost Surrey tudor Palace unveiled
The professor Martin Biddle with the model made by Mister Ben Taggart
Mister Ben Taggart with his model of " Nonsuch Palace "
By Hendricks Dankert
" Nonsuch " from North West
Unknown flemish artist
1752 watercolour by Joris Hofnagel
Nonsuch Palace Palais de Sans-Pareil
Palais de Sans-Pareil
Façade sud du palais de Sans-Pareil au XVIe siècle d’après le détail d’une gravure de Joris Hoefnagel (1582)
Le palais de Sans-Pareil dans le Surrey, aura sans doute été le plus grand projet architectural du roi Henri VIII. Il se dressait à Cuddington, près d’Epsom, où l'église et le village avaient été rasés moyennant une compensation en or versée aux habitants expulsés. Les travaux débutèrent le 22 avril 1538, le jour du jubilé de la trentième année de règne du souverain anglais, et six mois après la naissance de son fils, le futur Édouard VI. En l'espace de deux mois, le nom de « Sans-Pareil » (Nonsuch en anglais) apparaît dans les comptes des fournisseurs, un nom qui témoigne de l'ambition du projet tel qu'il était déjà perçu à l'époque. La construction était déjà largement avancée en 1541, lorsqu’on l’interrompit. Comme la Couronne avait pris possession de plusieurs centaines d’hectares de terre alentour pour créer le parc du château, il fallut détourner plusieurs routes et chemins.
Le palais, suivant le modèle du Château de Chambord de François Ier, devait célébrer la puissance et la magnificence de la maison Tudor. Contrairement à la plupart des palais d’Henri VIII, le château de Sans-Pareil n'est pas la réhabilitation d’un édifice antérieur ; le souverain décida d'établir un palais ex nihilo en ce lieu parce qu’il était voisin de son plus grand terrain de chasse. Le palais, avec son exubérante ornementation, coûta au moins 24 000 £ (soit plus de 100 millions de £ au cours de 2009) ; on le considère comme un moment crucial de l’introduction des canons de l’Architecture Renaissance en Angleterre.
À travers les siècles
Palais de Sans-Pareil
Le palais était inachevé à la mort d’Henri VIII en 1547. En 1556 la reine Marie le vendit au 19eComte d'Arundel qui en paracheva la construction. Il revint aux souverains d'Angleterre dans les années 1590, et demeura propriété royale jusqu'en 1670, lorsque Charles II en fit don à sa favorite, la comtesse de Castlemaine. Elle en avait fait abattre les murs en 1682–83 et vendu les pierres comme matériau de construction pour payer ses dettes de jeu. Quelques éléments furent incorporés à d'autres édifices, comme par exemple les boiseries toujours visibles dans la Grande Halle de Loseley Park. Il n'y a plus aucune trace de ruine aujourd'hui sur le site historique, mais quelques vestiges sont visibles au British Museum. On distingue toujours cependant un monticule à l'endroit où la vieille église de Cuddington se dressait avant qu'on l'abatte pour faire place au palais. Le Palais de Sans-Pareil ne doit pas être confondu avec Nonsuch Mansion, qui se trouve à l'est du parc, ni à la salle des banquets qui y était annexée, et dont les fondations sont toujours visibles au sud-est de l'ancien palais.
Il ne reste aujourd'hui que trois représentations d'époque du palais, et encore ne nous apprennent-elles pas grand chose sur les détails de l'architecture du château. Le site fit l'objet de fouilles en 1959–1960. Le plan du palais semble avoir été fort simple : une cour intérieure et une cour extérieure, auxquelles on n'accédait qu'en franchissant une porte fortifiée. Au nord, l'ensemble était fortifié comme un château fort, alors que la façade méridionale était ornementée dans le style Renaissance, avec de hautes tours octogonales à chaque extrémité. La distribution des cours intérieure et extérieure était très simple, mais la cour intérieure était ornée d'impressionnants panneaux de stuctravaillés en relief.
L'emplacement du château s'était perdu au fil des décennies, lorsqu’à la suite des tranchées qu'on avait creusées pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, on rapporta la mise au jour de plusieurs éclats de poterie dans des champs, qu'on identifia plus tard comme le site même du palais. On retrouva d'ailleurs les contours en plan du château par photographie aérienne, preuve supplémentaire pour la localisation du site historique. Les fouilles de 1959 au palais de Sans-Pareil furent un moment fort de l'histoire de l'archéologie au Royaume-Uni. Sans-Pareil fut en effet l'un des premiers sites post-médiévaux à faire l'objet de fouilles, et ces recherches attirèrent environ 75 000 visiteurs à l'époque.
The always existing Tudor Castle
Hampton Court Palace
This page has been created after the marvelous Michael - Jean - Paul friendly travel " Along the river " in 2014 June ...
For many people to day Hampton Court Palace is Henri VIII . It is indeed Henri's royal standard that flies over the gate house . But it wasn't always so .
first acquired a relatively small manor house here in 1514 , and constructed a magnificent palace around it . It was only when Wolsey fell from his position of power and influence that Henri acquired Hampton Court , and began his own ostentations building program . A main reasonof the fall of the cardinal is it not the desire of King to appropriate Hampton Court ? Probably .
Château Royal d'Hampton Court
Le château d'Henri VIII
Le château est très beau et le parc est magnifique.
A voir pour une deuxième visite ou un séjour plus long.
Comptez une journée si vous visitez le parc. On n'a pas eu le temps de tout voir, mais ça méritait d'y consacrer plus de temps. Il y a plusieurs endroits pour se restaurer. On peut manger à l'intérieur ou emmener son pique-nique et manger dans le parc. C'est très sympa. Les enfants adorent. J'ai beaucoup aimé les cuisines.
Pour ceux qui connaissent, c'est un peu comme le château de la Ferté St Aubin, en 20 fois plus grand, et bien entretenu. On retrouve en Sologne cette utilisation des briquettes en architecture.
Nous, on a vu Hampton Court avant, ça nous a fait drôle quand a vu La Ferté !
Le thème de notre visite était la préparation du mariage du Roi Henri VIII avec sa sixième femme, Kateryn Parr.
Petit rappel historique, j'en profite, j'ai la doc sous le nez :
The Borough of Epsom & Ewell covers approximately 8500 acres of which 2000 is open space. In this article, we cover the history of Nonsuch Park - the busiest and most open of all our green spaces.
The Park is on the English Heritage register of historic country parks, contains Ancient Woodland and has been selected as a Site of Nature Conservation Importance (SNCI) for its habitats and wildlife.
In 2008, Surrey County Council, who own the freehold of much of the park, granted a lease of ownership jointly to Sutton and Epsom & Ewell Councils and a 5 year management plan established.
A childhood haunt of Botanist David Bellamy, the park is open from 7.30 a.m. until dusk, 365 days a year.
Laying Out The Park
The original Nonsuch Park, covering a much larger area than the present open space, was created in 1538 by Henry VIII to celebrate the 30th year of his accession and the birth of his son, the future Edward VI. The core of the park was formed out of the manor of Cuddington, which the King had bought from Richard Codington, the last of a long line of landowners based there. The Codingtons had owned some land in Malden to the north, and this was purchased by Henry along with the manor. He also bought a line of fields that lay in Ewell, west of the Cuddington boundary and east of Ewell Common.
The park was later enlarged by James I, who in 1606 took in some lands north of the Hogsmill in the manor of Long Ditton. By this time its boundaries were at their most extensive. They began, in modern terms, east of Ewell at the point where London Road meets the Bypass; then along the Bypass line, leaving it at Stoneleigh and continuing up Walsingham Gardens, west of Auriol Park and along Cromwell Road; crossing the Hogsmill and looping round the Maori Sports Ground, to return over the river by Barrow Hill along Highdown to Worcester Park Station; then behind Cheam Common Road and so down to London Road; along the eastern edge of the present park, and then following Ewell Road into Cheam Road down to its junction with the Bypass; and then through the grounds of Ewell Castle to meet up with London Road again.
London Road (the ancient Stane Street, now the A24) continued in use as a main road; it divided the park into two sections, the northern half, of about 1000 acres, was known as the Great Park, and the southern, of 670 acres, as the Little Park. Originally the road from Ewell to Cheam had run across the Little Park, but this was diverted around its southern boundary, which is why the present Cheam Road (the A232) describes a long curve. This was the only part of the park pale that was laid out from fresh, instead of following an existing property boundary. The rest of the manor of Cuddington, extending up to Banstead Downs, was left out of the park and remained farmland.
Each of the two parks had its own Keeper - a largely honorary post, since the actual management of the landscape was handled by subordinates. Under James I, the Earl of Worcester was made Keeper of the Great Park, and he rebuilt his lodge as a mansion known as Worcester House. By 1627 the Great Park had become known as Worcester Park, and in 1731 was sold off for agricultural land. It was the Little Park that became the Nonsuch Park we know today.
Nonsuch Palace by Hendrick Danckerts
The King's Park
It was traditional for royal estates to be divided into an outer park managed only for hunting, and a little or home park containing buildings, gardens, and a smaller hunting area. Nonsuch was laid out on this plan. The Palace which Henry built on the ruins of Cuddington church and manor house was an architectural display of Henry's wealth and magnificence, hence the name derived from 'None Such'; but it wasn't very large, being intended only for short stays by the court. Immediately south of the Palace lay the small Privy Garden, screened by high walls, and to the west there were Grounds laid out in groves and orchards, extending to the Grove of Diana at the slope of the rising ground. Further on, about a quarter of a mile from the Palace, a Banqueting House was built on the highest ground within the park; its balconies provided magnificent views westwards over Ewell.
The rest of the park occupied land which had originally surrounded the village of Cuddington. By 1538 this had shrunk since the days when it was equal to Ewell or Cheam. Most of its fields were small pastures, enclosed by hedges; the arable land, stretching up to the Downs, had been excluded when the park boundary was drawn. So there were many trees (more than 5,000, according to a survey of 1650) and the finest lay close to the Palace site, where the old manor house had been.
Henry VIII died in 1547, before the Palace was completed, having visited on maybe only three occasions. Nonsuch remained a royal possession until 1556, when Mary sold it to Henry Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel. He was a Catholic, and so suffered from disadvantages under the new reign of Elizabeth I; in 1569 he was caught plotting against Elizabeth, and banished to Nonsuch. The property passed to Arundel's son-in-law John, Lord Lumley, in 1580, and twelve years later Lumley found himself so encumbered by debts that he sold it to Elizabeth, bringing the property back into royal hands.
The last years of Elizabeth's reign were the most popular period of the Palace's life, when it was used regularly to entertain ambassadors and for meetings of state. James I made improvements to the hunting, and allowed his son Henry to hold court here. Following the untimely death of Prince Henry, it was little used until his brother Charles I succeeded to the throne in 1625, when he gave it to his queen Henrietta Maria as a private retreat. The outbreak of the First Civil War in 1642 saw Royalist troops gathering in the lodges of the Great and Little Park and there was fighting in the area during the Second Civil War of 1648. After Charles had been executed, Nonsuch was among the royal estates sold off by Parliament. There had been unauthorised felling and sales of timber, but under the Parliamentary general Thomas Pride, the park was restored to its position as a gentleman's residence.
Charles II, who had acquired all the old royal estates at the restoration, had little use for Nonsuch. In 1670 he gave it to his former mistress Barbara Villiers, Lady Castlemaine. In 1682 she had the Palace pulled down and sold off the demolished building materials to offset her gambling debts. The park was eventually divided up and sold as farmland in 1731; Cherry Orchard Farm was established between the sites of the Banqueting Hall and Palace.
The soil to the west of the park is mainly clay and there is evidence of quarrying and pottery from 1708 until 1790 after which Nonsuch Pottery was established nearby.
The Mansion House across the park in autumn
Between 1802 - 06 a Mansion House, with formal gardens and outhouses, was built at the Cheam end by the then current owner Samuel Farmer, MP for Huntingdon, which replaced an earlier structure. Several generations of his family subsequently lived there. This is now a Grade II* Listed Building and is probably on the site of the former keeper's lodge.
Near this was a nursery providing fruit and vegetables, a farm and ice-well. By this time the remains of the Palace had been levelled and 'The Avenue' built. A Stone Cross and Drinking Fountain was built outside the Cheam entrance, sometimes referred to as 'The Bellgate Entrance'.
During the 1840s the Sutton to Epsom railway line was built through the south of the park. A retaining wall on the remains of the Banqueting Hall approximately 1m high was rebuilt using some original Tudor bricks as part of a conversion to an arboretum.
Between the wars, housing developed between the railway line and the southern boundary, and work had started on a new arterial road through the park. By this time, the Ewell Bypass had been completed to the west, which involved the destruction of the attractive Hatch Furlong area and utilised a portion of the field in which the Banqueting Hall stood.
Concerned about this encroaching development, 263 acres of the Little Park and the Mansion were purchased in 1937 from the then owner Alice Colborne (daughter of William Farmer)* by a consortium of the local authorities involved. These were London County Council, Surrey County Council, Sutton & Cheam Borough Council and Epsom & Ewell Urban District Council*. This was purchased for public open space as part of the Green Belt around London and the park has been managed by a Joint Management Committee ever since. The Official Opening took place on Wednesday 29 September, 1937. The area involved did not include the site of the Banqueting Hall - this remains with Epsom & Ewell, who made it available to the public in compensation for the destruction of Hatch Furlong. Construction of the new arterial road was abandoned, although much of it can still be traced.
Official Opening Programme Image courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum
Cheam Gate Lodge was demolished in 1938.
During World War 2, public brick surface shelters were built along the north side near Sparrow Farm Road, and in common with other open spaces, obstacles were made from a mixture of trenches and scrap metal to deter potential troop-carrying gliders. Mobile gun batteries were put in place. It was a base for the Home Guard, whilst Canadian soldiers camped in the grounds just before D-Day. Wounded Servicemen were billeted in the Mansion House.
Haystacks in Nonsuch Park c.1940 Image courtesy of Bourne Hall Museum.
100 acres of the park were used for growing corn and potatoes and farmed by land girls; sheep and cattle, neither of which are present today, used to graze. Allotments were located along the northern and western edges. The Mansion House's kitchen gardens produced vegetables for sale, both to individuals and local green grocers, and this continued until the early 1970s.
London Road Lodge was demolished in 1955.
In 1959 excavation work finally determined the location of the Palace. The work, lasting 12 weeks, involved 500 people and attracted 60,000 visitors and television coverage. Further excavations took place a year later. The finds were given to the Museum of London and the Palace's position is now indicated by three stone obelisks on The Avenue.
One of the three obelisks indicating the Palace's position
Cereal cultivation ceased in the 1960s and the land grassed over. New trees were planted alongside The Avenue and to the north of the Mansion.
During the 1970s Cherry Orchard Farm was demolished. New lodges were built at the two northern entrances and at the Castle Avenue entrance. Many 300 year-old trees were lost to Dutch elm disease in this era, with further losses following the 1987 storm. Some further tree planting took place to replace those lost.
Looking north over the snow covered park
What we now know as Nonsuch Park covers an area of 250 acres featuring a large open space with The Avenue and connecting paths running within the perimeter near the western, southern and eastern edges between the car parks and Mansion. Grass paths criss-cross this. Other than vehicles accessing the Mansion from Cheam Gate, the Park is also car-free. As the name implies, The Avenue is tree lined, featuring horse-chestnut, beech and turkey oak. There are three dog-free areas.
On the Nonsuch Trail in winter
To the west of The Avenue is the more 'natural' area, which can get very muddy in winter. (You may wish to refer to the Nonsuch Trail which covers this section).
Remains of the Banqueting Hall
The remains of the Banqueting House is now listed as a Scheduled Ancient Monument and cedars and conifers can be found nearby. The woods in this area are rich in bryophytes and molluscs.
Up to 1990 the nursery land attached to Cherry Orchard Farm had been used as part of Epsom and Ewell Borough's Ground Maintenance operation. Flowers grown were used as street decorations within the borough. When this ceased, wild flowers mixed with the few remaining plants from the nursery and the area inadvertently became a pocket of natural beauty. Attempts to sell off or build on this land were successfully resisted. A new footpath was constructed through here in 2010. The former chalk pit, often referred to as 'Devil's Dyke', is now home to the BMX bike community.
Running parallel to the south of The Avenue is the embankment of the abandoned arterial road, later known as 'Bee Passage'. Beyond this is 53 acres of land known as 'Warren Farm' after the farm that was originally located in the area; this is separately managed by the Woodland Trust. Here the aim has been to create a new area of woodland and managing the former arable fields for wild flowers including orchids; the eastern hill contains species of wild flowers that are uncommon in this area such as hawkweed oxtongue, common broomrape, blue fleabane and great lettuce. Part of this site has been developed in recent years, with new housing at the Ewell end and a leisure centre at the Cheam end. Unfortunately, the Grade II listed Stone Cross and Drinking Fountain in Cheam was completely demolished in a car crash in August 2013; this was reported locally, readers may wish to spot the mistake.
To the north can be found woodland and scrub containing a mixture of grassland, copses and a balancing pond (an artificial pond designed to store surface water run-off during peak flows and release it as required). This was built during the 1980s close to the site of the former Great Pond. Trees found here include lime, oak, yew and sycamore.
Oak tree in the Park Photo by Gill Sanders
The Friends of Nonsuch open the service wing of the Mansion to the public, including the kitchen, larders, sculleries and laundries; this is open between 2pm - 5pm, on the 2nd & 4th Sunday each month between April and September, plus Bank Holidays in May and August. The Nonsuch Palace Gallery is open between 11am - 2pm every Sunday, and since November 2011 has included a model of Nonsuch Palace - pictures of which can be found here.
The Mansion has been extensively refurbished and can be hired for weddings and parties, whilst next door is a recently opened café known as 'The Nonsuch Pantry' and toilets.
Community and Cultural Events regularly take place; recent examples have been the South West London Elective Orthopaedic Centre sponsored walk and the National Childbirth Trust Teddy Bear's Picnic. World Tai Chi Day has taken place annually. Within the Mansion's formal gardens, the Friends of Nonsuch/Nonsuch Rotary Club regularly have a Big Band Night.
Opposite the Mansion House is the former Nursery Lodge, which in 2013 was adapted to become The Little Oaks Forest Nursery School.
Popular with joggers and cyclists, every Saturday at 09:00 sees the 5 km Nonsuch Parkrun.